# Digital Electronics – Hub of related Posts

Here goes the list of our selected posts covering the Digital Electronics syllabus for the students of electronics engineering and other related streams/branches.

Students of Engineering & Technology streams are finding these posts very useful to prepare for semester examinations and competitive examinations like GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering). Professor Saraswati Saha is the author/co-author of the majority of these posts. See detailed author details after the list of articles on this page.

## Digital Electronics – Class Notes, Tutorials, Articles

#### Synchronous counter design for irregular sequence

In this post, we will design a Synchronous counter for an irregular sequence using J-K flip-flops with step-by-step analysis. Design a Synchronous counter for an irregular sequence Problem statement: Design ...

#### Lockout condition in Counter with design to avoid it

In this post, we will discuss the Lockout condition and how to avoid it. We will also design a sequence generator to avoid lockout conditions. What is Lockout Condition in ...

#### Drawing the output waveform for the OR gate & a given pulsed input waveforms

Problem statement: Draw the output waveform for the OR gate and the given pulsed input waveforms of Fig. 1 (a). figure 1 (a) SolutionFigure 1(b) shows the output waveform. It ...

#### Four-input OR gate using two-input OR gates – How?

How would you hardware-implement a four-input OR gate using two-input OR gates only? SolutionFigure 1 shows one possible arrangement of two-input OR gates that simulates a four-input OR gate. A, ...

#### OR Gate – definition, symbol, & Truth table

An OR gate performs an ORing operation on two or more than two logic variables. The OR operation on two independent logic variables A and B is written as Y ...

#### Truth Table of a logic system

A truth table lists all possible combinations of input binary variables and the corresponding outputs of a logic system. The logic system output can be found from the logic expression, ...

#### Positive and Negative Logic in digital systems

The binary variables can have either of the two states, i.e. the logic ‘0’ state or the logic ‘1’ state. These logic states in digital systems such as computers, for ...

#### Exclusive-NOR

Two special logic circuits that occur quite often in digital systems are the exclusive-OR and exclusive-NOR circuits. In this post, we will talk about Exclusive-NOR. [ Read about Exclusive-OR here ...

#### Exclusive-OR

Two special logic circuits that occur quite often in digital systems are the exclusive-OR and exclusive-NOR circuits. In this post, we will talk about Exclusive-OR. [ Read about exclusive-NOR here] ...

#### DeMorgan’s theorems of Boolean algebra

Two of the most important theorems of Boolean algebra were contributed by a great mathematician named DeMorgan. DeMorgan’s theorems are extremely useful in simplifying expressions in which a product or ...

#### Boolean algebra theorems | boolean theorems (rules)

Boolean algebra can be used to help analyze a logic circuit and express its operation mathematically. We will study Boolean algebra by investigating the various boolean theorems (rules) that can ...

#### Binary System & Binary counting

It is very easy to design simple, accurate electronic circuits that operate with only two voltage levels. For this reason, almost every digital system uses the binary (base-2) number system ...

#### Decimal System with examples

In this post, we will cover Decimal System with examples. The decimal system is composed of 10 numerals or symbols. These 10 symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...

#### Boolean function implementation using multiplexer

Boolean function implementation using multiplexer - In this post, we will solve a numerical problem based on Multiplexers. We also see how to implement the Boolean function using Multiplexers. Here, ...

#### Design steps of 4-bit asynchronous up counter using J-K flip-flop

In this post, we will discuss the Design steps of the 4-bit asynchronous up counter using J-K flip-flops. In a binary counter, if flip-flops do not change states in exact ...

#### Design steps of 4-bit (MOD-16) synchronous up counter using J-K flip-flop

In this post, we will discuss the Design steps of the 4-bit (MOD-16) synchronous up counter using the J-K flip-flop. We will start off by answering a few related questions ...

#### Latch, Flip-flop, and Counter

This post covers Latch, Flip-flop, and Counter with a set of questions and answers. These three topics are very important for digital electronics students. What is the difference between combinational ...

#### Flip-flop Types, Logic symbols, Truth Table & Applications – study notes

The basic building block for sequential logic circuits is the flip-flop. Logic circuits are classified into two groups. One is combination logic circuits using AND, OR, and NOT gates. The ...

#### Clocked S-R flip-flop & Clocked D Flip-Flop

In this post, we will study the Clocked S-R flip-flop & Clocked D Flip-Flop. S-R flip-flop is also called R-S flip-flop. We have used both the terms here. Clocked S-R ...

#### MOD-6 (Modulus-6) ripple counter – study & revision notes

In this post, we present a detailed write-up on MOD-6 (Modulus-6) ripple counter (study & revision notes). We know that n-bit asynchronous counters can count N = 2n clock pulses, ...

#### Propagation Delay in Ripple Counters: Study notes & Numerical problem

In this post, we will study the Propagation Delay in Ripple Counters. We will also solve a sample Numerical problem to illustrate the effect of propagation delays in a 4-bit ...

#### Asynchronous inputs of the flip-flop – Preset & Clear

In this post, we will know about Asynchronous inputs (or Preset & Clear inputs) of the flip-flop sequential circuit. Asynchronous input versus Synchronous input of flip-flop For the clocked flip-flops, ...

#### Race Around Condition in J-K Flip-Flop

In this post on J-K Flip-Flop, we will study the Race Around Condition in a clocked (level-triggered) JK flip-flop. But before that, we will study the Logic symbol, truth table, ...

#### Asynchronous modulus counter

This post covers the Asynchronous modulus counter with the help of a set of frequently asked questions (FAQs) and answers. What does it mean by the term modulus of a ...

#### Asynchronous Decade Counters, method of partial decoding & glitch

In this post, we will discuss Asynchronous Decade Counters. To start with we will briefly see what an asynchronous counter is and then we will find what a decade counter ...

#### Modulus-M (MOD-M) asynchronous counter – Study and revision notes

In this post, we will discuss the modulus-M (MOD-M) asynchronous counter and its design procedure. What is a modulus-M (MOD-M) counter? A modulus-M counter is a counter where M represents ...

#### J-K flip-flop – operation, truth table, excitation table

In this post, we cover J-K flip-flop and its operation, truth table, excitation table. This post will help students to prepare for the semester & GATE examination. Explain the operation ...

#### Numerical problems on asynchronous counter & synchronous counter

This post presents a bunch of numerical problems on the asynchronous counter (or ripple counter) & synchronous counter. You will get solutions to the problems as well. Students preparing for ...

#### Flip-Flop Sequential Circuit

This post covers Flip-Flop Sequential Circuit in detail with the help of a set of questions on the fundamentals of Flip-flop. Also, find answers to these. We hope, the Students ...

#### Binary Counter Sequential Circuit

Here, we will study Binary Counter Sequential Circuit with the help of a set of questions and answers. We hope that students who are interested to learn digital electronics and ...

#### Asynchronous Up counter for Positive & Negative edge-triggered flip-flops

In this post, we will discuss the following topics: (a) Asynchronous Up counter for Positive edge-triggered flip-flops & (b) Asynchronous Up counter for Negative edge-triggered flip-flops. For both of these, ...

#### A 3-Bit Asynchronous Binary Counter in UP counting mode | Up Counter

In this post, we will discuss A 3-Bit Asynchronous Binary Counter in UP counting mode. An asynchronous counter is one in which the flip-flops (FF) within the counter do not ...

#### Logic diagram, operation, & timing diagram of a 2-bit Synchronous Binary Counter using J-K flip-flops

In this post, we will cover the Logic diagram, operation, & timing diagram of a 2-bit Synchronous Binary Counter using J-K flip-flops. In one of the earlier posts, we have ...

#### How to design a Synchronous counter – step by step guide

In this topic, we will now go through a step-by-step procedure to design a complete synchronous counter. Although we will do it for a specific counting sequence (for example 00-01-10-11), ...

#### Synchronous Counter – Study & Revision Notes

In this post, we will study Synchronous Counter and its benefits over Asynchronous Counter. We will also study the differences between Synchronous Counter and Asynchronous Counter. In binary Synchronous Counter, ...

#### Asynchronous Counter – study & revision notes

This post presents a detailed study & revision notes on Asynchronous Counter or ripple counter, design of a 2-Bit Asynchronous Binary Counter with its Logic diagram, operation diagram & timing ...

Author of this post

This post is co-authored by Professor Saraswati Saha, who is an assistant professor at RCCIIT, a renowned degree engineering college in India. Professor Saha teaches subjects related to digital electronics & microprocessors.

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