Chemistry – Hub of related Posts

Here goes the list of our selected posts covering the high school chemistry syllabus.


What is Covalent Bonding? – study notes

Covalent bonds are formed when atoms, rather than gaining or losing electrons, share them. Covalent bonds differ from ionic bonds in that there is no transfer of electrons involved. Electrical ...
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Important formulas related to Atomic Structure

In this post, you will find a bunch of important formulas related to atomic structure. formulas related to atomic number & mass number (a) Atomic number (Z) = number of ...
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Electron shells for the first 20 elements & shells filling rules

In this post, we will present a diagram displaying the electron shells for the first 20 elements of the Periodic Table.The number of electrons increases by 1 each time. (It ...
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The atoms of the first 20 elements in the periodic table

In the Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing proton number. Here is a quick list of the names of the first 20 elements in the periodic ...
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Isotopes – revision notes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element, with different numbers of neutrons.Most elements have isotopes. For example, calcium has six, magnesium has three, iron has four, and chlorine has two ...
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Acid, Alkali, and pH scale – chemistry notes

Here you will get the fundamental concepts of acids, alkalies, and pH value (concepts, measurements, & examples). What is an Acid? An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions, ...
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Sources of metals & methods of their extraction

In this post, we will discuss the ways of extraction of metals. In this process, we will cover ores, sources of metals, & different methods of extraction of metals (including ...
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Molar form of Enthalpy equation – how to derive?

The Enthalpy equation is represented as ΔH = ΔU + pΔV ...(1) where ΔU is the change in internal energy and ΔV is the change in volume of the system ...
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Numerical problem – Calculating Internal Energy Change (𝚫U) for a Reaction (Thermodynamics chapter)

In this post, we will solve a numerical problem from the Thermodynamics chapter. We will use the enthalpy and internal energy equation. The goal of this numerical is to calculate ...
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Enthalpy – chemistry revision notes for class 11

Enthalpy of a system may be defined as the sum of the internal energy(U) and the product of its pressure(p) and volume(v). It is denoted by the symbol H and ...
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Carbon & its bonding, allotropes, Physical Nature & Compounds

Carbon is non-metal. In nature, it occurs in its pure form as diamond and graphite. When fuels burn, the carbon in them reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Carbon ...
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Thermodynamics – class 11 chemistry notes

This post covers Thermodynamics with class 11 chemistry notes. The branch of science which deals with the study of different forms of energy and their interconversion is called thermodynamics. Thermodynamics ...
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Thermodynamics Processes – FAQ

In this post, we will cover a few important & frequently asked questions on Thermodynamics Processes. The state of a thermodynamic system can be changed by a process. In other ...
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Isotherm, Isobar & Isochore graphs

When we study gas laws (Boyle's law, Charles' law & Pressure Law), we come across terms like Isotherm, Isobar, and Isochore. Here, in this post, we will discuss these. What ...
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Atoms – FAQ with answers

All atoms are made of three basic particles: the proton, electron, and neutron. Let's see how these were identified or discovered. How were electrons identified? The first strong evidence that ...
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Molar Mass – concepts and formula

The mass of one mole of a substance in grams is called its molar mass. The molar mass in grams is numerically equal to atomic/molecular/formula mass in u. The molar ...
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Numerical Problems based on combined Gas law or Gas equation & ideal gas equation

In this post, we will solve a few Numerical Problems based on the Combined Gas law (or Gas equation) & the Ideal gas equation. The Formulas used to solve the ...
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Combined Gas Law or gas equation | the Ideal Gas Equation

We will derive the following here (1) combined gas law or gas equation & (2) the Ideal Gas equation. For these, we will use Boyle's law, Charles' law, Pressure law, ...
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Avogadro’s Law (Volume–Amount Relationship)

Avogadro’s Law offers Volume-Amount Relationship of gases. Amadeo Avogadro in 1811, put forward a relationship between volume of a gas to the number of molecules at constant temperature and pressure ...
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Numerical problems based on Gay Lussac’s law or pressure law

Let's solve a sample numerical problem (from the gas chapter) using Gay Lussac’s law or pressure law. The formula to be used is as follows: P1/T1 = P2/T2 Example 1 ...
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Numerical Problems based on Charles’ Law with solution

In this post, we will solve numerical problems using Charles’ Law. The formulas to be used are as follows: If V1 is the volume of a certain mass of a ...
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The gaseous state of matter – Facts and FAQs

The gaseous state is the simplest state of matter. In this post, we will cover some important facts and frequently asked questions on gases and the gaseous state of matter ...
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Solving Numerical problems using Boyle’s law

Here we will present a set of solved numerical problems that use Boyle’s law formula to solve the numerical problems on gas. The primary formula that will be used to ...
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How Bonding type decides Boiling and melting points

In this post, we will see how the type of bonding influences the melting point and the boiling point of a substance. Simple covalent molecules such as H2, F2, O2, ...
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Intermolecular Forces versus Thermal Energy of three states of matter

In this post, we will first define Thermal energy, and then we will see how competition between molecular interaction energy (Intermolecular Force based energy that keeps molecules together) and thermal ...
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Intermolecular Forces – Types & features

The forces of attraction and repulsion between interacting particles (atoms or molecules) are called intermolecular forces. Such forces exist in all states of matter and are responsible for many structural ...
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States of matter – chemistry revision notes

This post briefly discusses the states of matter with their important characteristics. We also define the Triple point with one example. Three States Of Matter - with characteristics Matter exists ...
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