Chemistry – Hub of related Posts

Here goes the list of our selected posts covering the high school chemistry syllabus.


List of compounds with common name, chemical name & formula

Here is a list of compounds with the common name, chemical name, and formula of these compounds. compounds with their common name, chemical name & formula compounds with the common ...
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Properties of Metals

In this post, we will list down a few important properties of metals and discuss them briefly. Important Properties of Metals In general, metals have high densitiesIn general, metals have ...
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Allotropes of carbon – Diamond & Graphite

Allotropes are different forms of the same element in the same state. The different forms of solid carbon are called allotropes of carbon. Diamond & Graphite are two crystalline allotropes ...
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Electrolysis & manufacturing of Sodium & chlorine

Sodium and chlorine are manufactured by the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. When an electric current passes through molten sodium chloride, a shiny bead of sodium is produced at the ...
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What are the products of electrolysis?

When compounds are electrolysed, new substances are produced at the electrodes. For example, when electricity is passed through molten sodium chloride, pale green chlorine gas comes off at the anode, ...
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Which substances conduct electricity?

Some substances do not conduct electricity at all; others conduct electricity in some circumstances, but not in others. In this post, we will see which solids conduct electricity. Also, we ...
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What is a molecule?

A molecule is the smallest particle that can have a separate, independent existence. When atoms of the same element join together the result is a molecule of an element. When ...
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Relative Formula Mass of a compound

Relative atomic masses can be used to compare the masses of different atoms. Relative atomic masses can also be used to compare the masses of molecules in different compounds. The ...
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What is a Symbol equation and how to Balance it?

Reactions such as magnesium burning with oxygen are described with equations. Word equations describe the reactants (the starting substances) and the products (the final substances). Chemical or symbol equations describe ...
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Solubilities of various salts in water

In this post, the solubilities of various salts in water at 20 °C are listed in a table (figure 1). In this list, you can easily notice the wide range ...
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Naming convention of salts | The names of salts – rules

Table 1: Naming convention of salts The data in the table above shows how the name of a salt comes from its parent base and acid. So, magnesium oxide and ...
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What is titration? | How to carry out a titration?

Titration is an important method to determine the concentration of either an acid or alkali. It works by knowing the volume and concentration of one solution needed to neutralize the ...
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How Kinetic theory of matter explains Changes of state?

The kinetic theory of matter can be used to explain how a substance changes from one state to another. A summary of the different changes of state is shown in ...
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The kinetic theory of matter

The idea that all substances contain incredibly small moving particles is called the kinetic theory of matter. The word ‘kinetic’ comes from a Greek word meaning moving. [Related Post: Kinetic ...
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Some reversible chemical reactions with equations

Reactions that can be reversed are called reversible reactions. Most of the chemical reactions are irreversible. But there are some processes that can be reversed. ice to water, and water ...
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Salts – fundamentals

What are salts? Salts are formed when acids react with metals, bases, or carbonates. Most salts contain a positive metal ion and a negative ion composed of one or two ...
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Bases and alkalis – fundamentals

In this post, we will study the fundamentals of Bases and Alkalis (fundamentals, definition, differences, examples, reactions of alkalis with water, strong and weak alkalis, etc.) Bases Bases are substances ...
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Properties of acids – revision notes on a few properties of acids

In this post, we will discuss a few important properties of acids. Acids react with metals Acids react with metals that are above copper in the reactivity series to form ...
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How hydrogen bonding explains unusual density changes of water with changes in temperature

This post explains How hydrogen bonding explains unusual density changes of water with changes in temperature. At the same time, it explains why water has its greatest density at a ...
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Structure of Water molecule – revision notes

In a water molecule, an oxygen atom shares a pair of electrons with each of two hydrogen atoms with polar covalent bonds. Oxygen has six outer electrons and needs two ...
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The Halogen Group – a general idea

The Halogen Group is One of the most reactive groups in the periodic table, this set includes non-metals. The name “halogen” means “salt former”, which refers to the way that ...
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Number of protons, electrons, & neutrons from mass number & atomic number

In this post, we will see how to calculate the number of protons, electrons, & neutrons from the mass number & the atomic number of an element. how to calculate ...
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Internal Energy of a thermodynamic system

In this post, we have defined the Internal Energy of a Thermodynamic System. We have also identified the components of Internal Energy. Definition of Internal Energy in Thermodynamics In thermodynamics, ...
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List of elements (alphabetically arranged in a pdf)

In this post, we present an embedded PDF file that contains the list of elements with their symbol, atomic number, and molar mass. The elements are arranged alphabetically, starting from ...
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hybridization model & hybrid orbitals

In this post, we will explain the hybridization model & Hybrid orbitals in an atom. Hybridization model To explain how the orbitals become rearranged when an atom forms covalent bonds, ...
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Ionic Compounds & their chemical formula structure

In this post, we will cover the definition & a few examples of Ionic Compounds. We will also see how the chemical formulas of Ionic compounds are constructed. A brief ...
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Periodic Table (image)

In this post, we present an image (infographics) that contains the periodic table of the elements. This will be a ready reckoner for those who want a quick view of ...
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The van der Waals Equation & Selected van der Waals Constants for Gas Molecules

In this post, we will cover the van der Waals equation and find 2 constants a and b in the equation. We will also find a table full of selected ...
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Neutralization reaction – definition, examples, equations

The reaction of an acid and a base is called a neutralization reaction. Although acids and bases have their own unique chemistries, the acid and base cancel each other’s chemistry ...
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Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases | Kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic molecular theory of gases is a model that helps us understand the physical properties of gases at the molecular level. This kinetic theory of gases describes this state ...
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Define stoichiometry

In this post, we will briefly define stoichiometry. Then we will see how to Relate quantities in a balanced chemical reaction on a molecular basis. Define stoichiometry The relating of ...
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chemical reactions that involve the transfer of electrons are called oxidation-reduction (or redox) reactions. In this post, we will understand what redox reactions are, we will define Oxidation, Reduction, and ...
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Energy in Chemical Reactions | exothermic & endothermic

Often, energy is released or absorbed during a chemical reaction. The energy for the welding torch is released when hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water (see the equation below) ...
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Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds – concepts

In this post, we will briefly discuss the concepts of Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds. Polar Covalent bond In some covalent bonds, electrons are not shared equally between the two ...
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Alkanes & The first four alkanes – revision notes

Alkanes are a family of saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated molecules are ones that only contain single covalent bonds. The structures of the first four alkanes are shown in table 1. The ...
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Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions – revision notes

Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions involve electron transfer and include all chemical reactions in which atoms have changed their oxidation state. Oxidation state is the state of an element or ion in ...
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Molecular formulae and structural formulae of organic compounds

Chemists use a variety of ways to represent organic compounds. It is useful to know all of these so that you can recognize a molecule regardless of how it is ...
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How does carbon bond with other atoms?

Carbon has a number of unique properties that influence how it behaves and how it bonds with other atoms: 1 ) Carbon has four valence electrons. Carbon can thus form ...
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Activation energy & chemical Reaction – chemistry Study notes

Activation energy is the minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction. The colliding particles must possess at least this amount of energy for a reaction to take place. Most ...
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What is Covalent Bonding? – study notes

Covalent bonds are formed when atoms, rather than gaining or losing electrons, share them. Covalent bonds differ from ionic bonds in that there is no transfer of electrons involved. Electrical ...
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Important formulas related to Atomic Structure

In this post, you will find a bunch of important formulas related to atomic structure. formulas related to atomic number & mass number (a) Atomic number (Z) = number of ...
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Electron shells for the first 20 elements & shells filling rules

In this post, we will present a diagram displaying the electron shells for the first 20 elements of the Periodic Table.The number of electrons increases by 1 each time. (It ...
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The atoms of the first 20 elements in the periodic table

In the Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing proton number. Here is a quick list of the names of the first 20 elements in the periodic ...
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Isotopes – revision notes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element, with different numbers of neutrons. The nuclei of different isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons but different numbers ...
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Acid, Alkali, and pH scale – chemistry notes

Here you will get the fundamental concepts of acids, alkalies, and pH value (concepts, measurements, & examples). What is an Acid? An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions, ...
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Sources of metals & methods of their extraction

In this post, we will discuss the ways of extraction of metals. In this process, we will cover ores, sources of metals, & different methods of extraction of metals (including ...
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Molar form of Enthalpy equation – how to derive?

The Enthalpy equation is represented as ΔH = ΔU + pΔV ...(1) where ΔU is the change in internal energy and ΔV is the change in volume of the system ...
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Numerical problem – Calculating Internal Energy Change (𝚫U) for a Reaction (Thermodynamics chapter)

In this post, we will solve a numerical problem from the Thermodynamics chapter. We will use the enthalpy and internal energy equation. The goal of this numerical is to calculate ...
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Enthalpy – chemistry revision notes for class 11

Enthalpy of a system may be defined as the sum of the internal energy(U) and the product of its pressure(p) and volume(v). It is denoted by the symbol H and ...
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Carbon & its bonding, allotropes, Physical Nature & Compounds

Carbon is non-metal. In nature, it occurs in its pure form as diamond and graphite. When fuels burn, the carbon in them reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Carbon ...
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