# Thermal Physics – Hub of related Posts

Here goes the list of our posts on Thermal Physics and related topics and subtopics.

#### Temparature conversion Numericals class 8

In this post, we will solve a few selected Numericals based on temperature conversion formulas. Now, let's find the required formulas first. Formula used Temperature is measured in units of ...

#### Latent Heat Numericals

In this post, we will solve numerical problems based on latent heat concepts. [practice problems & extra problems]. Latent Heat Numericals - solved Question] Calculate the amount of heat necessary ...

#### Numerical based on the Efficiency of a heat engine – solved

Let's solve a selected Numerical problem based on the Efficiency of a heat engine. Formula Used Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the net work done by the engine ...

#### Difference between Heat and Temperature

Heat and temperature are closely related concepts but they play different roles in heating and cooling processes. Let's find out the difference between heat and temperature. Heat is energy that ...

#### Calorimetry Numericals class 10

In this post and its supporting posts, we will solve a set of Calorimetry Numericals for class 10. The problems are taken from Selina's ICSE Class 10 Physics book. The ...

#### Electronic thermometers & their functional principles

Many thermometers today are electronic. Let's see how different types of electronic thermometers are made and what are their working principles. 1 ) Most contain a tiny bead of a ...

#### How kinetic theory of gases explains the gas laws?

The kinetic theory can explain the behavior of gases. The kinetic theory of gases explains the gas laws, as well. Here, we will study a few of such explanations. a) ...

#### Gas constants and their relationships

Gas Constants & their values The Avogadro constant (NA) = 6.02 × 1023 particles per moleThe molar gas constant or universal gas constant (R) = 8.31 J mol−1 K−1The Boltzmann ...

#### How to derive the value of R (Universal Gas Constant)

The Combined Gas Law or Gas Equation is as follows: PV / T = constant (K) ......... (1) The value of this constant K changes if the volume of the ...

#### Describing phase change in terms of molecular behaviour

In this post, we will describe the change of state (phase change) in terms of molecular behavior. When solids that do not melt are heated, the thermal energy supplied overcomes ...

#### Graphs for state change or phase change | change of state – graphs

In this post, we will study the Graphs for state change (phase change graphs or change of state graphs). We have already studied the keywords related to the state change ...

#### Thermodynamics – Formula bank

In this post, we present 30 formulas from the Thermodynamics chapter (class 11 physics). This formula bank is going to help you to find the formulas in a single place ...

#### Change of state – some keywords & definitions

In this post, we defined some keywords related to 'change of state' or Phase change. These words include terms like critical point, triple point, etc. The three states of matter ...

#### Latent heat and specific latent heat – definitions & concepts

In this post, we will discuss the fundamentals of latent heat and specific latent heat. latent heat - definition Latent heat is the amount of energy released or absorbed by ...

#### Internal Energy of a System – revision notes

On the basis of the kinetic theory of matter, we can discuss the concept of internal energy as the sum of the energies of individual components/constituents. This includes kinetic energy ...

#### Carnot cycle processes of Carnot engine

The Carnot cycle represents the cycle of processes for a theoretical heat engine with the maximum possible efficiency. Such an idealized engine is called a Carnot engine. Here in this ...

#### How do refrigerators and air conditioners work? | work and heat flow

In this post, we will briefly discuss (1) how refrigerators work, & (2) How Air conditioners work. Work and Heat flow diagram of refrigerator and air-conditioner is also presented here ...

#### The Carnot Engine

In this post, we will discuss the concepts of the Carnot engine. We will also cover subtopics like Assumptions made for the Carnot engine, the existence of the Carnot engine(if ...

#### What is the third law of thermodynamics?

What is the third law of thermodynamics?The third law of thermodynamics states that absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature, can never be reached. The entropy of a system is zero ...

#### Entropy as Probability – most disorder state is the most probable one

In this post, we will discuss how we can consider Entropy as Probability. We have already covered entropy (disorder) when we discussed the 2nd law of Thermodynamics. There is a ...

#### Heat Engines

This post talks of an important topic of the Thermodynamics chapter of Physics. We talk here about Heat Engines, their definition, examples of heat engines, internal combustion engines, internal combustion ...

#### The Second Law of Thermodynamics & Entropy

To understand the Second Law of Thermodynamics it's essential to understand the concept of Entropy. Once we get an idea of entropy with an example, we will discuss 3 different ...

#### P–V diagram & calculation of work done

In this post, we will discuss how the P-V diagram can help us to calculate the work done by a system or on a system. We will derive the equation ...

#### Heat capacity & Specific heat capacity – explanation & measurement

In this post, we will first go for the definitions, formulas, units, and explanations of Specific Heat Capacity & Heat Capacity. Then we will see how to measure Specific heat ...

#### Conduction of Heat – study notes

Conduction is a mode of transmission of heat where heat flows from the hot end to the cold end and particles of the medium simply oscillate but do not leave ...

#### Heating effect of electric current class 10 Numericals

In this post on the Heating effect of electric current class 10 Numericals, we will list down the Heating Effect formulas or Equations of electric power and energy. And, then ...

#### Numerical problems on the first law of thermodynamics

In this post, we will solve a few numerical problems using the First Law of Thermodynamics. Numerical problems on first law of thermodynamics Question number 1) Complete the values in ...

#### Thermodynamic energy model & First law of thermodynamics

In this post, we will draw the Thermodynamic energy model to relate heat in, work done on the system, heat out, and work done by the system. Before that, we ...

#### Specific latent heat of vaporization – revision notes

Latent heat is needed to change a liquid into a vapour (during vaporization). Let's discuss on Specific latent heat of vaporization in detail. role of latent heat of vaporization If ...

#### Specific latent heat of fusion – REVISION NOTES

The specific latent heat of fusion (lf) of a substance is the quantity of heat needed to change the unit mass of it from solid to liquid without temperature change ...

#### What is a Bimetallic strip & what are its uses?

If equal lengths of two different metals, such as copper and iron, are riveted together so that they cannot move separately, they form a bimetallic strip (Figure 1). figure 1: ...

#### Conduction, Convection, & Radiation – Energy transfer during heating & cooling

There are three different processes through which energy can be transferred during heating and cooling: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of heat through a substance as a ...

#### Internal energy of a substance – Definition and Different forms

To describe the total energy of the molecules in a substance, we need to take into account both the kinetic energies and the potential energies. This is called the internal ...

#### Temperature scales and absolute temperature

The temperature scales that we use today were designed for simplicity and easy reproduction. The Celsius temperature scale is used throughout the world and is a good example of how ...

#### Molecular theory of solids, liquids, and gases to explain their shape and volume

The molecular theory of solids, liquids, and gases explains the reason behind their shape and volume. Let's find out how in the next paragraph. figure 1 figure 2 ( showing ...

#### The gas laws | Statement, Formula, graph of Charles’ law, Boyle’s Law & Pressure law

The gas laws tell us the relationship between pressure, temperature, and volume of gases. The gas laws can be stated in a convenient form for calculations when absolute temperatures are ...

#### How to explain the anomalous expansion of water in simple words?

In the case of fluids, with the rise of temperature, the volume increases. Therefore, the density decreases. But, water expansion shows an anomalous behavior for a specific temperature zone. As ...

#### Thermal conductivity definition, formula, and Thermal conductivities of some common materials

In this post, we will find out the definition of thermal conductivity and its formula. We will also see a table containing thermal conductivity values for selected materials. We will ...

#### What are Heat Capacity and Specific Heat? | comparison | Specific Heat Data table | numerical problems solved

In this post, we will discuss Heat Capacity and Specific heat, their relationship, comparison, Specific heat data tables, and formula. We will also solve a few numerical problems based on ...

#### First Law of Thermodynamics – so easy to understand?

Here in this post, we will cover the first law of thermodynamics. It basically talks about the effects of heat transfer in terms of internal energy and work done. As ...

#### Thermal Conductivity Derivation| Dimension of thermal conductivity

The thermal conductivity of a material (designated as k) is the measure of how quickly heat energy is transferred or conducted from one end of the material to the other end ...

#### Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics and thermal equilibrium

This post is on Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. To discuss this we will begin with a briefing on the definition of Thermodynamics and the concepts of Thermal Equilibrium in the ...