# Kinematics_21

## Non-uniform acceleration on a velocity-time graph

If the acceleration is changing, the gradient of the velocity-time graph will also be changing – so you won’t get a straight line. Increasing acceleration is shown by an increasing gradient — like in curve 1 below. Decreasing acceleration is shown by a decreasing gradient – like in curve 2 below. How to find the […]

## The velocity-time graph & speed-time graph – comparison

Here, we will find the differences between the velocity-time graph & speed-time graph. As an example, we will compare the velocity-time and the speed-time graphs for a ball being thrown up into the air. Differences between the velocity-time graph & speed-time graph A speed-time graph may have some similarities with a velocity-time graph, but these […]

## How to determine Acceleration on displacement-time graphs

In this post, we will see how to determine the acceleration from a displacement-time graph. The gradient of a displacement-time graph shows velocity. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity, so on a displacement-time graph, acceleration is the rate of change of the gradient. A graph of displacement against time for an accelerating object […]

## Displacement-Time Graphs

Displacement-time graphs show an object’s position relative to its starting point over a period of time. They’re useful because they can be used to describe an object’s motion as well as find its velocity at a given point. Plotting displacement-time graphs Let’s see how to plot displacement-time graphs for moving objects.The suvat equations can be […]

## The effect of air resistance on projectile motion

In this post, we will find the effect of air resistance on projectile motion. We have seen that in the absence of air resistance, the trajectory or path followed by a projectile is a parabola and that the path depends only on the initial speed and angle of projection. But in the real world, all […]

## How to solve projectile motion problems using Conservation of energy

In some situations, the use of conservation of energy can be a much simpler method to solve projectile motion problems than using the kinematics equations. Solving projectile motion problems makes use of the fact that Ek + Ep = constant at every point in the object’s flight (assuming no loss of energy due to friction). […]

## Worksheet on distance-time graph & velocity-time graph – Q&A

This post presents a Q&A worksheet covering distance-time graph and velocity-time graph. Before you try to solve these, you may read our posts on the distance-time graph (d-t graph) and the velocity-time graph (v-t graph).

## Motion in 2 and 3 Dimensions – formula & numerical

We will discuss and list down the formulae of position, velocity, and acceleration related to the Motion in two and three Dimensions using unit vectors i, j, and k format. We will list down the 2-Dimensional equivalent of motion equations or suvat equations. Also, we will solve numerical problems using the formulas of the position […]

## Horizontal projectiles – formulas with derivation

Horizontal projectiles are directed straight out as a horizontal projection. It undergoes downward acceleration under the influence of gravity and hence gets an increasing downward velocity. At the same time, the horizontal velocity of the horizontal projectile remains the same throughout the flight as there are no forces in the horizontal direction if you ignore […]

## Vertical Projectiles vs. Horizontal Projectiles – a detailed comparison

In this post, we will make a comparison between Vertical projectiles and Horizontal projectiles. When an object is thrown or projected, into the air it’s named a projectile. Essentially, such a projectile (rock, football, bullet, golf ball, or whatever) could be directed straight upward as a vertical projection, directed straight out as a horizontal projection, […]

## State the three Laws of motion | State Newton’s laws of motion | List down the concepts we find from the laws of motion

Here we state the 3 laws of motion: Newton’s 1st Law of motion states that Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. Newton’s 2nd Law of motion states that The rate of change […]

## The differences between Uniform circular motion and projectile motion with diagrams

The acceleration in a uniform circular motion (Fig. 1) has some similarities to the acceleration in projectile motion (Fig. 2) without air resistance, but there are also some important differences between Uniform circular motion and projectile motion. Differences between Uniform circular motion and projectile motion 1) In both kinds of motion, the magnitude of the […]

This Motion in one dimension Notes [PDF download] is primarily for the grade 10 or 10th-grade syllabus of different international boards. This also covers the class 11 physics syllabus on motion (1d) for boards like ICSE, CBSE, etc. This physics class note covers the theoretical as well as the numerical part of this important chapter. […]

This Projectile Motion Notes [PDF download] is primarily for the grade 12 or 12th-grade syllabus of different international boards. This covers the class 11 physics syllabus on 2D motion as well for boards like ICSE, CBSE, etc. This physics class note covers the 2-Dimensional projectile motion topics listed below. We hope, the students appearing for IGCSE, AP […]

## Projectile Motion Formula

Projectile motion is the motion of a projected object in flight which is a result of two separate simultaneously occurring components of motions. One component of motion is without any acceleration along a horizontal direction and the other along the vertical direction with constant acceleration due to the force of gravity (considering air resistance as […]

## Acceleration, velocity, displacement of projectile at different points of its trajectory

Acceleration, velocity, displacement of projectile at different points of its parabolic trajectory are what we are going to study here. Both horizontal and vertical components of these 3 motion quantities will be presented in tabular format. Consider a ball that is projected at an angle θ to the horizontal with velocity v, as shown in […]

## Acceleration

What is Acceleration? Any variation from moving at a constant speed in a straight line is described as an acceleration.It is very important to realize that going faster, going slower, and/or changing direction are all different kinds of acceleration (changing velocities). Acceleration, a, is defined as the rate of change of velocity with time.If the […]

## How to use graph paper to draw motion graphs?

How to use graph paper to draw motion graphs?

## IGCSE Physics Definitions – Forces and Motion

IGCSE Physics Definitions from the Forces and Motion chapter are listed below. It contains definitions for vector, scalar, torque, CG, velocity, force, acceleration, and important laws like Newton’s laws of motion, Hooke’s law, etc. This post also includes reference links to detailed posts on respective topics that would certainly help the students of all boards […]

## Derivation of the Equations of Motion | deriving ‘suvat equations’

Derivation of the Equations of Motion: To calculate quantities involving motion in a straight line at a constant acceleration we need four equations. These equations are often informally referred to as the ‘suvat equations’ after the symbols used for the 5 quantities involved. We will derive equations for the following 5 motion quantities: displacement (s), […]

## Motion graphs of vertical fall against air-drag | Motion graphs of falling objects when air resistance is present

Here we will discuss the motion graphs of vertically falling objects when air-drag or air-resistance is present. Certainly, it’s not a free fall as during free-fall air drag is ignored and only gravity is considered. But in this case, we are discussing the vertical motion which is under the influence of both gravity and air-drag. […]

## Motion graphs of falling objects during free-fall | Motion graphs for freely falling bodies

Here we will discuss the motion graphs of falling objects during free-fall. During free-fall, the only force that is considered to act on the vertically falling object is Gravity. That means during free-fall the air drag is not considered. In other words, in those cases where air drag is found to be negligibly small and […]

## Draw the Displacement-time graph of a ball thrown vertically upwards

The displacement-time graph for the motion of a ball thrown vertically upwards in the air is shown in figure 1. As the ball goes higher, its velocity decreases continuously (deceleration) till at time t1, when it reaches the highest point it comes to rest momentarily. From the instant of throwing vertically upwards to the highest […]

## How uniform acceleration is different from nonuniform acceleration?

Let’s see how uniform acceleration is different from non-uniform acceleration. Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity. We call an acceleration uniform when the change of velocity per unit time is constant i.e. velocity changes by an equal amount in an equal interval of time. In uniform accelerated motion velocity-time graph is […]

## How is Uniform Circular Motion called a motion with acceleration?

Uniform Circular motion is an accelerated motion. In this quick post we will first discuss what uniform circular motion is and then will find how this motion is with acceleration in spite of being uniform. Uniform Circular Motion is a motion with acceleration – Explain how? An object that moves in a circle at constant […]

## What is the difference between Circular motion and rotational motion – are they the same?

Rotational motion is a type of circular motion. In other words, all circular motions can’t be called rotational motion, but all rotational motions are certainly circular motions. When an object turns, it’s in a circular motion irrespective of the position of its axis. But for a rotational motion, the axis has to be located within the body of the object.

## The difference between a distance-time graph and a displacement-time graph (for a ball thrown vertically upwards)

The difference between a distance-time graph and a displacement-time graph for a ball thrown directly upwards

## Kinematics equations – quick reckoner of motion equations

Here we have listed down important equations (or formula sets) related to Kinematics. You will get kinematics equations on position, displacement, total displacement, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, average speed, instantaneous speed, average acceleration, instantaneous acceleration, velocity from acceleration, position from velocity, free-fall equations, etc. Kinematics equations – cheat sheet kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion […]

## Projectile Motion Numerical problems with solution guidance | word problem worksheet class 11

Here we will solve selected numerical problems on Projectile motion and will also provide solution guidance. To get a good grasp on this chapter we need to solve some numerical problems, which really helps us a lot to understand the basics and use the formulas. Earlier we have published posts on the derivation of the […]

## Distance-Time graph of various types with examples

This post is to discuss the Distance-Time graph with a few examples. A distance-time graph is a graphical representation of “how something moves”, pointing to the distance of the object from the starting point and the time instant from the staring moment along two axes of the graph. Distance-Time graph for stationary body Distance-Time graph […]

## How does Parachute motion happen under gravity and air drag? Explain with time graph

Parachute motion under the influence of gravity and air drag (resistance) and the speed-time graph of this fall – This is the topic of this post. And we will cover this step by step. How does Parachute motion happen under gravity and air drag? 1) A free-fall parachutist jumps out of the aircraft and accelerates […]

## What is the difference between distance and displacement?

Distance is the length actually traveled on a route while Displacement is the shortest distance (straight line distance) between the initial point and final point of the traveled path. Distance is a scalar quantity and required to calculate speed. On the other hand, displacement is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Displacement […]

## Multiple Choice Questions on Motion physics (MCQs on motion)

Motion in one dimension – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ):In this post, we are presenting an awesome set of MCQs on Motion in one dimension. These multiple-choice questions will make you confident enough about this chapter, provided you try this MCQ paper to test your understanding. We found this set on the internet and thought to […]

## What is the difference between average speed and average velocity

Speed and velocity both indicate how fast a body is traveling, but there is an important difference between these quantities. The average speed, v, of a body is given by its rate of change of distance, whereas the average velocity, v, of a body is its rate of change of displacement. The SI unit for […]

## Why Do Different Masses (and Weights) Fall at the Same Rate?

Why Do Different Masses (and Weights) Fall at the Same Rate?A quick answer is: As the value of g is the same for all falling objects (regardless of their mass) near the surface of the earth and in the absence of external forces, hence objects with different masses (and weights) fall together or fall at […]

## Instantaneous Acceleration – definition & formula with solved problem

The quantity that tells us the rate at which an object is changing its velocity at a specific instant in time anywhere along its path is the instantaneous acceleration. That means when we say ‘acceleration’ of a body we actually mean instantaneous acceleration. Another related term is the average acceleration that is basically for a […]

## Average Acceleration and its formula & solved numerical problems

When velocity changes an object is said to undergo acceleration. Quantitatively, we define acceleration as the rate of change of velocity, just as we defined velocity as the rate of change of position. The average acceleration over a time interval Δt is the ratio of change in velocity Δv (that takes place over the time […]

## Physics Calculator for Projectile Motion equations – online

Why Online Physics Calculator for Projectile Motion? This post presents you with a set of Projectile motion online calculators to calculate parameters like maximum height, maximum horizontal range, time for upward motion, the total time of flight, etc. If you use these calculators, you can easily and quickly find out how certain input parameters can […]

## Instantaneous Velocity – definition & equation with solved problem

The quantity that tells us how fast an object is moving at a specific instant in time anywhere along its path is the instantaneous velocity, usually called velocity as well. That means when we say ‘velocity’ of a body we actually mean instantaneous velocity. Another related term is the average velocity that is basically for […]

## Average velocity – definition, formula, numerical problem

How fast an object is moving can be expressed by the rate at which the position of the object changes with time. For each position xi, we assign a particular time ti. If the details of the motion at each instant are not important, the rate is usually expressed as the average velocity v. Average […]

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