High School Physics

Neutralization reaction – definition, examples, equations

The reaction of an acid and a base is called a neutralization reaction. Although acids and bases have their own unique chemistries, the acid and base cancel each other’s chemistry to produce a rather innocuous substance – water.

In fact, the general reaction between an acid and a base is
acid + base → water + salt
where the term salt is generally used to define any ionic compound (soluble or insoluble) that is formed from a reaction between an acid and a base.

For example, the balanced chemical equation for the reaction between HCl(aq) and KOH(aq) is
HCl(aq) + KOH(aq) → H2O(ℓ) + KCl(aq)
where the salt is KCl.

By counting the number of atoms of each element, we find that only one water molecule is formed as a product.

However, in the reaction between HCl(aq) and Mg(OH)2(aq), additional molecules of HCl and H2O are required to balance the chemical equation:
2HCl(aq) + Mg(OH)2(aq) → 2H2O(ℓ) + MgCl2(aq)

Here, the salt is MgCl2. (This is one of several reactions that take place when a type of antacid – a base – is used to treat stomach acid.)

See also  Isotope
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