In this post, we will learn about Geostationary and geosynchronous satellites, and also will find out the relationship and differences between Geostationary and geosynchronous satellites. geosynchronous satellite A geosynchronous satellite has a period of exactly 1 day so that it passes over a fixed point on the Earth’s surface at the same time each day […]

## how acceleration due to gravity varies with latitudes

In this post, we will see how acceleration due to gravity varies with latitudes. acceleration due to gravity(g) varies with latitudes – how? Consider a point A on the earth’s surface where the line joining center O to A makes an angle θ with the equatorial plane as shown. The angle θ is said to […]

## Orbital speed & Escape speed – worksheet

This worksheet contains numerical problems on Orbital speed & Escape speed. 1) a) Confirm that the escape speed from the Earth’s surface is 11.2 km s−1.b) Explain why all masses have the same escape speed.c) Determine the escape speed from a planet that had twice the radius of Earth, but the same density. 2) The […]

## Gravitation MCQ worksheets – class 11 Physics (CBSE, ISC) term-1

## How Is Gravitational Field Strength Related to Gravitational Acceleration?

Here we will see how Gravitational Field Strength is related to Gravitational Acceleration. To determine how gravitational field strength is related to gravitational acceleration, we will use the definition of a newton, 1 N = 1 kg.m/s2. Then we will substitute kilogram-meters per second squared for newtons (N) in the equation for gravitational field strength: […]

## Gravitational Potential – solved worksheet (numerical)

In this post with the Gravitational Potential worksheet, we will solve a bunch of numerical problems with the help of the concept and formula of Gravitational Potential, gravitational potential energy, & gravitational force. Gravitational Potential – worksheet with solution 1 ) What is the gravitational potential at the Earth’s surface? (mass of Earth = 5.97 […]

## The total energy of an orbiting body or satellite – equation derivation with sample numerical

In this post, we will derive the equation of the total energy of an orbiting body, and then will solve a numerical problem using the formula derived. Derive the formula of the total energy of an orbiting body (or satellite) To calculate the total energy of an orbiting body (say a satellite) we have to […]

## Gravitation class 11 Physics revision notes – chapter 8, concepts, formulas, applications & Questions | UPSC | grade 12

This post presents Gravitation class 11 notes in a nutshell. This one summarizes the key concepts, formulas, and applications. It also lists down a set of selected questions from the Gravitation chapter (prepared for ISC, CBSE class 11 physics, grade 12 physics, and UPSC preparation, IAS exams). Isaac Newton unified “earthly” bodies and “heavenly” bodies […]

## Satellite & Circular Motion & understanding of Geostationary Satellite

We will discuss here the circular motion of satellites, state of free fall of satellites, types of orbits, geostationary satellite and low Earth orbit satellites. Satellites undergo circular motion Satellites orbiting the Earth, including the Moon, are examples of objects undergoing circular motion. In this case of circular motion, the centripetal force is provided by […]

## Leaving Certificate – Numerical Worksheet on Gravity & Gravitational force & Universal Law of gravitation

This post presents a Leaving Cert Physics Gravity worksheet with Numerical Problems & solutions. You can take it as Leaving Certificate Universal Law of gravitation worksheet as well. You can browse through our post on the derivation of the law of gravitation and the formula of the gravitational force if you want to brush up […]

## Derivation of Gravitational potential energy equations

Deriving equations of Gravitational Potential Energy (1)with planet’s surface as the zero level & (2)infinity is chosen as the zero level, 1] If we choose a planet’s surface as the zero level or reference, Gravitational Potential Energy Ep at x has a positive value.

If infinity is chosen as the zero level, Ep has a negative value.

Gravitational potential energy Ep = (mg) × h = mgh (if we choose a planet’s surface as the zero level or reference).

Gravitational potential energy Ep can be expressed as Ep = – G m1m2 / r (if infinity is chosen as the zero level).

## How to measure universal gravitational constant | Measurement of G

Henry Cavendish first measured the universal gravitational constant G in 1798. The apparatus used is shown in Figure 1. Other experimenters repeated Cavendish’s measurement of G with various improvements and refinements. All measurements of G are found to be difficult because of the extreme weakness of the gravitational attraction. Setup of Henry Cavendish to measure […]

## Gravitational Field Strength on the earth’s surface

Gravitational Field Strength on the earth’s surface is defined as the force per unit mass experienced by a small test mass placed on the earth’s surface (in the gravitational field of the earth). So the Gravitational Field Strength at this point is expressed by the formula, g = G M/r^2where M = mass of the […]

## Gravitational field strength formula and definition

A gravitational field is a region where you find gravity. More precisely, the gravitational field is defined as a region of space where a mass experiences a force because of its mass. In this post, we will find out more about the Gravitational field strength with its definition and formula. What is the gravitational field […]

## How to calculate the time the earth takes to go around the sun, using Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation?

Here we will see how to calculate the time the Earth takes to go around the Sun once. We will use Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation to calculate this. Calculating the time taken by the earth to go around the Sun Using Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation Applying Newton’s universal law of Gravitation, we will […]

## Acceleration due to gravity of a body is independent of its mass-How to Show mathematically?

Acceleration due to gravity of a body is independent of its mass – let’s show it mathematically. We will consider a body of mass m on the surface of the earth. Let M be the mass of the earth and R be the distance between the body and the centre of the earth (when the […]

## Numerical problems on Gravitation & Gravitational force for IGCSE, ICSE, CBSE

Here we will solve a bunch of numerical problems from the Gravitation chapter of high school Physics, covering gravitational force and gravitational constant. This is a well crafted numerical problem worksheet that you should try. The solutions of the numerical problems are also provided at the end of this worksheet. This worksheet is appropriate for […]

## How Strong is the Coulomb Force Relative to the Gravitational Force?

How Strong is the Electrostatic or Coulomb Force Relative to the Gravitational Force? To find this we will calculate the electrostatic force and the gravitational force between an electron and proton separated by 0.530×10-10 m. (This distance is their average separation in a hydrogen atom) This will give us an estimate of the relative strength […]

## Find out the value of g from its formula

We have derived the equation of g (acceleration due to gravity) and we will use that formula or equation to find out its value. The formula we will use is: g = GM/R2[Derivation of g formula here] Value of g from its formula We will use 3 values in the formula. And those values are […]

## The relation between G and g with equation

This post highlights the relation between G and g. G is the universal gravitational constant and g is the acceleration due to gravity. So let’s find out the relationship in terms of an expression or equation. Relation between G and g Let’s consider an apple of mass m falling from a tree. The apple is […]

## Calculate the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of the moon | solving numerical with this value

To calculate the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of the moon we will use the formula g = GMmoon / Rmoon2 Here G = universal gravitational constant = 6.67 × 10−11 N · m2/kg2Mmoon = 7.35 × 1022 kgandRmoon = 1.738 × 106 m gmoon = GMmoon / Rmoon2 = (6.67 × 10−11 […]

## How to compare Electric Force and Gravity with similarities and differences?

This topic is a comparative study between the Electric force and Gravity. The electric force is related to electric charges and Gravity is applicable between any two masses. Similarities between the laws explaining Electric Force and Gravity Coulomb’s law for the force between two charges looks pretty similar to Newton’s law of gravitation for the […]

## What is the value of acceleration due to gravity at the center of the earth?

What is the value of acceleration due to gravity at the center of the earth?The value of the acceleration due to gravity at the center of the earth equals zero. Mathematical Proof of the same:At the center of the earth, depth from the earth’s surface is equal to the radius of the earth. We know the […]

## The formula for acceleration due to gravity at a depth h – with derivation

In this post, we will discuss and derive the formula for acceleration due to gravity at a depth h. As the depth from the earth’s surface is increased, the value of g falls. We will discuss and derive the equation that describes the change in the value of g due to depth from the earth’s […]

## The formula for acceleration due to gravity at height h – with derivation

In this post, we will discuss and derive the formula for the acceleration due to gravity at height h (where h<<Radius of the earth). As height or altitude from the earth’s surface increases the value of g falls. Now we are to discuss and derive the equation of g that describes this change in g […]

## Derive the formula of Acceleration due to gravity on the earth’s surface | derive the formula for g

In this post, we will list down and derive the formula of Acceleration due to gravity on the earth’s surface. In other words, we will derive the formula or equation of g on the earth’s surface. The 2 formulas we will derve for g (Acceleration due to gravity on the earth’s surface) are: g = […]

## Online physics calculator to calculate variation of g due to height

Use this online physics calculator to calculate the variation of g due to height or altitude variation above the earth’s surface. Please note that here, for this calculator, the value of height << radius of the earth. How to use this online calculator? Enter the value of height in meter. For this calculator, the value […]

## Online physics calculator to calculate variation of g due to depth below surface

Use this online physics calculator to calculate variation of g due to depth variation below the earth’s surface. How to use this calculator online? Enter the value of depth in meter unit.The values are g and the radius of the earth is prepopulated and can be modified within a range only. You can keep these […]

## Orbital Velocity Formula with solved numerical problem

Here in this post, we will list down different forms of the Orbital velocity formula or equation. We will present here 3 sets of formulas including the near-orbit one. After this, we will also see how to use these formulas to solve numerical problems. Orbital Velocity Formula – 3 sets of formulas are listed below: […]

## Escape velocity Derivation & concept – derive formula √(2gR) for earth

We will first understand what escape velocity is and then we will focus on the escape velocity derivation to get its formula or equation. Now, what is escape velocity? Define Escape Velocity Escape velocity is defined as the minimum velocity with which if an object is thrown from the surface of the earth or any […]

## Kepler’s Third Law equation derivation-Time period of Satellite revolution

We will derive the equation for Kepler’s Third Law using the concept of Period of Revolution and the equation of orbital velocity. In this process, the equation of the Time Period Of Revolution of the earth satellite would be derived as well. We’ll also solve sample numerical problems here using this law. So let’s start! […]

## Orbital Velocity derivation & concepts for class 11 | How to derive the orbital velocity equation?

Orbital Velocity of a satellite is the minimum velocity it has to maintain to continue its circular motion in its orbit or in other words it is the minimum velocity of the object in circular motion that generates enough centripetal force to keep it in the circular orbit of given radius. We will discuss this in details as well as we will focus on the derivation of Orbital Velocity formula.

## Variation of g with height and depth – how g changes with height and depth

Variation of g with height and depth: Acceleration due to gravity or g varies as the height or depth varies with respect to the surface of the earth. This means the value of g on top of a mountain won’t be exactly the same as that on the earth’s surface. Similarly, g at a location […]

## A stone falls towards the earth but the opposite is not observed-why?

A stone falls towards the earth – why? A stone falls back on the ground. But the earth doesn’t seem to move towards it. Why? As said by this law of universal gravitation every object in this universe is attracting every other object towards it. This force of gravitational attraction between any two objects in […]

## Universal Law of Gravitation & Derivation of Gravitational Force formula

The objective of this post is the study of the Universal Law of Gravitation and the derivation of the Gravitational Force formula from the Universal Law of Gravitation. Universal Law Gravitation by Newton states about a force of attraction between any two objects. And as per this law, this force is (i) inversely proportional to […]