High School Physics

Geometric Optics_21

Verification of Snell’s law of refraction (and hence finding the refractive index of glass)

This experiment is on the Verification of Snell’s law of refraction (and hence finding the refractive index of glass). Experiment: Verification of Snell’s law of refraction Apparatus: light box, glass block, and protractor Method: (refer to the diagram above) Now we have to plot a graph of sin i against sin r. A straight line […]

Refractive Index Calculator – based on Snell’s Law

In this post, we present you with a Refractive Index Calculator that is based on Snell’s Law. The Formula used: Refractive Index (n) = sin(Incident Angle) / sin(Refracted Angle) Refractive Index Calculator (Snell’s Law) Incident Angle (degrees): Refracted Angle (degrees): Calculate Reset Formula: Refractive Index (n) = sin(Incident Angle) / sin(Refracted Angle) How to use […]

Sign convention for Spherical Mirrors – class 10

Here we will present the New Cartesian Sign Convention for Spherical Mirrors for measuring various distances in the ray diagrams of spherical mirrors (convex mirrors and concave mirrors).

Numericals of Light Class 10

In this post, you will find a set of Numericals of Light for Class 10. The solutions are given as well that would help you to get a good grasp on this important chapter of class 10 physics.

Magnification values and signs produced by a Lens & their implication | Lens Magnification rules

Magnification values and signs produced by a Lens & their implication | Lens Magnification rules

Uses of Concave Mirror

Uses of Concave Mirror

Uses of Convex mirror

Uses of Convex mirror

Light Class 8 Numericals – solved numerical questions

In this post, we will solve Numerical problems based on the Light chapter of class 8 science. Here, first, we will go through the law of reflection & related formulas, and then attempt the numerical questions. Solution & answer is given for all the numerical questions.

Wavelengths of 7 colors of VIBGYOR

The image below shows the wavelengths of 7 colors of VIBGYOR in nanometers. Colour Wavelength in nanometer Violet [v] 400-440 Indigo [I] 440-460 Blue [B] 460-500 Green [G] 500-570 Yellow [Y] 570-590 Orange [O] 590-620 Red [Red] 620-700 Wavelengths of 7 colors of VIBGYOR Violet has the shortest wavelength. Red color has the longest wavelength.

Twinkling of stars is an effect of atmospheric conditions on the refraction of light – explanation

Twinkling of stars is an effect of atmospheric conditions on the refraction of light

Numerical based on Lens Makers’ equation – solved

In this post, we will solve numerical problems based on Lens Makers’ Equation. Here is our post on the equation used here which you can read: Lens Makers’ equation. Numerical based on Lens Makers’ equation – with solution A dense glass double convex lens [n =2] designed to reduce spherical aberration has |R1|:|R2|=1:5. If a […]

Lens makers’ equation

Lens makers’ equation provides a relation between refractive index (n), focal length (f ), and radii of curvature R1 and R2 for a thin lens. Lens makers’ equation Here is the Lens makers’ equation: Significance of Lens Makers’ equation For preparing spectacles, it is necessary to grind the glass (or acrylic, etc.) for having the […]

Real and Apparent depth Numerical problem – solved

Let’s solve a numerical based on real depth, apparent depth, and refractive index. Also, you will get to know about the RI formula to be used to solve this. Real and Apparent depth Numerical problem – with solution Question 1] A crane flying 6 m above a still, clear water lake sees a fish underwater. […]

Prove that Refractive index = Real depth/apparent depth

In this post, we will prove mathematically that Refractive index = Real depth/apparent depth. As an Illustration of refraction: 1) When seen from outside, the bottom of a water body appears to be raised. This is due to refraction at the plane surface of the water. In this case, the Refractive index of water n […]

State using a neat diagram, what happens to the path of light when..

Q] State using a neat diagram, what happens to the path of lighti. when light ray passes from rarer to denser medium.ii. when light ray passes from denser to rarer medium.iii. when light ray is incident normally at the boundary between two media. Answer: i. When a light ray passes from a rarer medium to […]

Magnification Produced by Lenses

Magnification Produced by Lenses

Lens Formula | Spherical lens formula

Lens Formula | Spherical lens formula

Sign convention for Spherical Lenses – class 10

Sign convention for Spherical Lenses – class 10

Lens Numericals class 10 | Thin lens numerical solved

Lens Numericals class 10 | Thin lens numerical solved

Rules for the formation of images by Concave Lens – class 10

Rules for the formation of images by Concave Lens – class 10

Rules for the formation of images by Convex Lens – class 10

Here, in this post, we listed 3 rules for the formation of images by Convex Lens. After studying these, it will be easier to study the image formation by convex lenses, and related ray diagrams. Rules for the formation of images by Convex Lens (i) A ray of light coming parallel to the principal axis, […]

Types of concave lens

A lens that is thin in the middle and thick at the edges is called a concave lens. The most common form of a concave lens has both surfaces depressed inward in the middle. Three types of concave lenses are listed and then shown in the figure below. 3 Types of concave lens class 10 […]

Types of convex lens class 10

A lens that is thick at the center and thin at the edges is called a convex lens. The most common form of a convex lens has both surfaces bulging out in the middle. Three types of convex lenses are listed and then shown in the figure below. 3 Types of convex lens class 10 […]

Spherical Lens class 10 | Spherical Lenses

In this post, we have briefly discussed the topic of Spherical Lenses for class 10. Here we have covered what are spherical lenses, the types of spherical lenses, important terms related to spherical lenses, and image formation by spherical lenses. Here is our post on the ray diagrams of the images formed by spherical lenses. […]

Spherical Mirror class 10

In this post, we will find out what Spherical Mirror is. We will define a spherical mirror, list down the uses of this type of mirror, and discuss its sign convention. We have already one dedicated post covering ray diagrams of different types of images formed by the spherical mirror, which you should check. In […]

What are hyperopia & myopia – symptoms, reasons, and fixes

Two of the most common vision problems are myopia and hyperopia where images of objects are not properly focused on the retina of the human eyes. To understand these let’s briefly discuss how human eyes act as compounded lenses. If we understand this first, it will be better for us to understand the symptoms & […]

Harder Numerical problems based on SNELL’S LAW – in Light chapter physics

Here we have a set of numerical problems based on Snell’s Law from the chapter ‘Light‘ of fundamental physics. This numerical set is a bit harder to solve but certainly will be helpful to strengthen your concepts on Snell’s Law.Read about this law and its formula here: our post on Snell’s Law Harder Set of […]

[pdf] Geometrical Optics Grade 10 & grade 11 Notes download (10th & 11th Grade physics) | class 10 & class 12 physics notes on light & Geometrical Optics

This Geometrical Optics Notes [PDF download] is primarily for the grade 10 and grade 11 syllabus of different international boards. This also covers the physics syllabus for class 9 to class 12 on Light or Optics for boards like ICSE, CBSE, etc. This physics class note covers the theoretical as well as the numerical part […]

How to deviate light rays by 180 degrees with a prism?

Let’s see how a light ray can be deviated by 180 degrees with the help of a prism. A total reflecting prism is used here to get a 180-degree deviation of a light ray. Conditions to get a 180-degree deviation of a light ray with a prism Conditions are as follows to get a deviation […]

How to deviate light rays by 90 degrees with a prism?

how a light ray can be deviated by 90 degrees with the help of a prism-we have enlisted the conditions to be satisfied to get that deviation.

What is a total reflecting prism and when to use it?

What is a total reflecting prism? A right-angled isosceles prism that has a 90-degree angle and two 45-degree angles is known as a total reflecting prism. A total reflecting prism is named so because light ray incident normally on any of its faces suffers total internal reflection inside the prism. When to use a total […]

How does a mirage form?

One of the most interesting effects of atmospheric refraction occurs in the mirage, which is usually associated with hot deserts. Mirage is the result of atmospheric refraction and total internal reflection. The air in the desert is hot near the ground and cools rapidly with height. The hotter air is optically less dense. So as […]

How Total Internal Reflection happens in Optical fibres?

Optical fibres are used in medical endoscopes to see inside the body, and in communications to carry light signals. These fibres take the help of Total Internal Reflection of light to operate. Now, let’s see how Total Internal Reflection happens in Optical fibres. How Total Internal Reflection happens in Optical fibres The light ray is […]

Why do diamonds sparkle when white light is directed at them?

Diamonds sparkle when white light is directed at them – the optical phenomenon behind this is Total internal reflection of light rays. Let’s discuss this in details. Diamonds sparkle when white light is directed at them – why and how? When white light enters a diamond, it is split into the colours of the spectrum. […]

Ray Diagrams for Images formed by convex & concave lenses

Here in this post, you will get Ray Diagrams for Images formed by convex & concave lenses as a Quick Reference.Image formation by lenses is an interesting topic in the Light chapter. Here along with the ray diagram, you will get the related details like Object position, image position, and nature of the image. Ray […]

Ray Diagrams for Images formed by concave & convex mirrors

Here in this post, you will get Ray Diagrams for Images formed by concave & convex mirrors as a Quick Reference.Image formation by spherical mirrors is an interesting topic in the Light chapter. Here along with the ray diagram, you will get the related details like Object position, image position, and nature of the image. […]

Why is the angle of deviation different for different colours?

This post will cover why the angle of deviation is different for different colours. We will also see how the deviation angle, refraction angle, and refractive index are interrelated and all these again depend on the speed of light rays of different colours. The angle of deviation is different for different colours – explanations Light […]

Violet is at the bottom of the spectrum made by Prism dispersion – Why?

Here we will discuss why violet is at the bottommost position of the spectrum made by the light emerging out of the prism on a white screen. This post is all about the position of violet color in the spectrum band created by the dispersion of light by a prism. Why is violet at the […]

Dispersion of Light through a Prism

In this post, we will learn what is meant by the dispersion of light. Then we will find out Why white light splits into seven colors when passing through a prism and why the dispersion of light through a prism happens. If these queries are interesting to you then this post will certainly help you […]

Difference between Reflection and Total Internal Reflection of light

Total Internal Reflection and Reflection are two different phenomena related to Light. Here we will talk about the difference between Reflection and Total Internal Reflection of light. Difference between Reflection and Total Internal Reflection of light 1] For Total Internal Reflection to happen the light ray has to pass from an optically denser medium to […]

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