# Geometric Optics_21

## What are hyperopia & myopia – symptoms, reasons, and fixes

Two of the most common vision problems are myopia and hyperopia where images of objects are not properly focused on the retina of the human eyes. To understand these let’s briefly discuss how human eyes act as compounded lenses. If we understand this first, it will be better for us to understand the symptoms & […]

## Harder Numerical problems using SNELL’S LAW – solving Light Numericals (physics) with Snell’s law

Here we will see how Snell’s law helps to solve a set of numerical problems from the chapter ‘Light‘ of fundamental physics. This numerical set is a bit harder to solve but certainly will be helpful to strengthen your concepts on Snell’s Law.Read about this law and its formula here: our post on Snell’s Law […]

## [pdf] Geometrical Optics Grade 10 & grade 11 Notes download (10th & 11th Grade physics) | class 10 & class 12 physics notes on light & Geometrical Optics

This Geometrical Optics Notes [PDF download] is primarily for the grade 10 and grade 11 syllabus of different international boards. This also covers the physics syllabus for class 9 to class 12 on Light or Optics for boards like ICSE, CBSE, etc. This physics class note covers the theoretical as well as the numerical part […]

## How to deviate light rays by 180 degrees with a prism?

Let’s see how a light ray can be deviated by 180 degrees with the help of a prism. A total reflecting prism is used here to get a 180-degree deviation of a light ray. Conditions to get a 180-degree deviation of a light ray with a prism Conditions are as follows to get a deviation […]

## How to deviate light rays by 90 degrees with a prism?

how a light ray can be deviated by 90 degrees with the help of a prism-we have enlisted the conditions to be satisfied to get that deviation.

## What is a total reflecting prism and when to use it?

What is a total reflecting prism? A right-angled isosceles prism that has a 90-degree angle and two 45-degree angles is known as a total reflecting prism. A total reflecting prism is named so because light ray incident normally on any of its faces suffers total internal reflection inside the prism. When to use a total […]

## How does a mirage form?

One of the most interesting effects of atmospheric refraction occurs in the mirage, which is usually associated with hot deserts. Mirage is the result of atmospheric refraction and total internal reflection. The air in the desert is hot near the ground and cools rapidly with height. The hotter air is optically less dense. So as […]

## How Total Internal Reflection happens in Optical fibres?

Optical fibres are used in medical endoscopes to see inside the body, and in communications to carry light signals. These fibres take the help of Total Internal Reflection of light to operate. Now, let’s see how Total Internal Reflection happens in Optical fibres. How Total Internal Reflection happens in Optical fibres The light ray is […]

## Why do diamonds sparkle when white light is directed at them?

Diamonds sparkle when white light is directed at them – the optical phenomenon behind this is Total internal reflection of light rays. Let’s discuss this in details. Diamonds sparkle when white light is directed at them – why and how? When white light enters a diamond, it is split into the colours of the spectrum. […]

## Ray Diagrams for Images formed by convex & concave lenses – Quick Reference

Here in this post, you will get Ray Diagrams for Images formed by convex & concave lenses as a Quick Reference.Image formation by lenses is an interesting topic of the Light chapter. Here along with the ray diagram, you will get the related details like Object position, image position, and nature of the image. Ray […]

## Ray Diagrams for Images formed by concave & convex mirrors – Quick Reference

Here in this post, you will get Ray Diagrams for Images formed by concave & convex mirrors as a Quick Reference.Image formation by spherical mirrors is an interesting topic of the Light chapter. Here along with the ray diagram, you will get the related details like Object position, image position, and nature of the image. […]

## Relationship of Speed with RI, Refraction Angle & Deviation Angle of Light

This post will cover the Relationships among Speed, RI, Refraction Angle & Deviation Angle of Light of different colors. Light of all colors travels at the same speed in the vacuum. But in the other transparent medium, light rays of different colors are found to travel at different speeds because of their different wavelengths. Let’s […]

## Violet is at the bottom of the spectrum made by Prism dispersion – Want to know why?

Here we will discuss why violet is at the bottommost position of the spectrum made by the light emerging out of the prism on a white screen. This post is all about the position of violet color in the spectrum band created by dispersion of light by a prism. Why is violet at the bottom […]

## Dispersion of Light through a Prism – the reason you must know

Why white light splits into seven colors when passing through a prism? Why the dispersion of light through prism happens? If these queries are interesting to you then this post will certainly help you to know the reason behind this optical phenomenon. So let’s begin. What is the dispersion of light? Isaac Newton found that […]

## Difference between Reflection and Total Internal Reflection of light

Total Internal Reflection and Reflection are two different phenomena related to Light. Here we will talk about the difference between Reflection and Total Internal Reflection of light. Difference between Reflection and Total Internal Reflection of light 1] For Total Internal Reflection to happen the light ray has to pass from an optically denser medium to […]

## What is the Critical Angle for the diamond-air interface?

What is the Critical Angle for the diamond-air interface? The Critical Angle for the diamond-air interface is 24 degrees. This means if the ray of light in the diamond medium strikes the separating surface between the diamond and air making an angle more than 24 degrees with the normal to the point of incidence then […]

## What is the Critical Angle for the glass-air interface?

The Critical Angle for the glass-air interface is 42 degree. This means if the ray of light in the glass medium strikes the separating surface between glass and air making an angle more than 42 degree with the normal to the point of incidence then that ray of light will undergo a total internal reflection […]

## List of Tutorials on Light (class 9 and 10 Physics-chapters on Light )

List of Tutorials on Light chapter (class 9 and 10 Physics) with content headers. Click the links and read the posts/topics to learn more. List of Tutorials on Light (class 9 and 10 Physics) Refraction of Light | Definition | Facts – definition of refraction, understand the concept of bending due to change of speed […]

## Snell’s law and its importance to calculate the refraction of light – with equation

Snell’s Law comes into action in the case of refraction of light, which is the change in direction of a light ray as it goes from one medium to another. As shown in Figure, a ray of light that encounters a change in medium is partially reflected, as if the boundary were a mirror. The […]

## Glass Prism as a refracting medium | angle of prism

In this post, we will just talk about some special features of prism that make it a suitable medium to test the refraction of light. Subtopics discussed: Glass Prism as a refracting medium – features, and angle of prism Glass Prism – features of prism that contribute refraction through it To discuss the features we […]

## Comparing Refraction through a rectangular parallel surfaced glass block and Refraction through a glass prism

Compare Refraction through a rectangular parallel surfaced glass block and Refraction through a glass prism – a ray of light from the air when passes through a rectangular glass block with parallel surfaces then refraction happens twice – (1) when light enters from air to glass and (2) when it comes out of the glass […]

## Lateral displacement of light due to refraction through the glass block

This post is going to explain the term Lateral Displacement of light which is related to the refraction of light. This phenomenon is observed when a ray of light gets refracted twice while passing from air to a parallel-sided glass block and then again to air. Lateral displacement of light due to refraction When refraction […]

## What are the total internal reflection and critical angle?

This post is on the total internal reflection and critical angle. Let’s begin. What are the total internal reflection and critical angle? When a ray of light passes from denser to rarer medium, the refracted ray bends away from the normal. Hence, the angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence. Gradually if […]

## Numerical problems on the refractive index of a medium – from class 10 Light chapter

In this post, we will solve a bunch of Numerical problems on the refractive index of light. The refractive index is written as RI as well. Numerical problems on the refractive index 1 ] The speed of light in air is 3 x 10^8 m/s and in glass it is 2×10^8 m/s. The RI of […]

## Refractive Index (µ) of some common substances | Refractive Index Table

Here you will find a list of materials with their Refractive Index or Absolute Refractive Index values. These are extracted from Refractive Index Table or chart. Refractive Index (µ) of Air is 1 Refractive Index (µ) of Vacuum is 1 Refractive Index (µ) of Water is 1.33 Refractive Index of Kerosene is 1.41 Refractive Index […]

## What is Refractive Index? – definition & formula | Refractive Index sample values

Definition Refractive Index- definition & formula | Refractive Index Table with RI values of common substances like water, glass and air

## Refraction of light – definition and important facts

Although light travels in straight lines in a transparent material, such as air, if it passes into a different material, such as water, it changes direction at the boundary between the two, i.e. it is bent. The bending of light when it passes from one material (called a medium) to another is called the refraction […]

## Characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror

Here is the list of characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror.(i) The size of the image is the same as the size of the object. (ii) The distance of the object in front of the mirror is equal to the distance of the image behind the mirror. (iii) A virtual and erect […]

## Refraction of Light: how does it depend on Optical Density of mediums?

Refraction of light is a phenomenon where light bends while moving from one medium to another, right at the surface separating these two mediums. Because of this when a pencil is dipped in a glass of water, it seems to be bent just at the surface separating the water in the glass and the air […]

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