In this post, we present an image (infographics) that contains a set of fundamental constants used in Physics and Chemistry with their symbols and values. This will be a ready reckoner for constants and their values. A few such constants available in this infographics are Atomic mass unit, Avogadro’s number, Coulomb constant, Gas constant, Permittivity […]

## AQA GCSE Physics – Equations & Formulae from Particle Model of Matter

The image below shows a list of equations and formulae from chapter “Particle Model of Matter” of the AQA GCSE Physics syllabus. This is also helpful for all other equivalent boards like CBSE, ISC, ICSE. Equations to learn from Particle Model of Matter chapter of physics syllabus

## Dimensional formula of Gravitational Field Strength

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Gravitational Field Strength. Gravitational Field Strength is defined as the gravitational force per unit mass in the gravitational field. The formula of Gravitational Field Strength (I): I = F/m=> I = GM/d2, where d is the distance between mass M and m. The dimensional formula of force = […]

## Dimensional formula of G | Dimensional formula of Universal Gravitational constant

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of the Universal Gravitational constant or G. The formula of the Gravitational Force between two masses M and m is F = GMm/d2, where d is the distance between M and m. From, this equation we get the formula of the Universal Gravitational constant or G, as […]

## Dimensional formula of Pressure Energy – how to find it?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Pressure Energy. The formula of the Pressure Energy = pressure × volume The dimensional formula of pressure = [ML–1T–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of pressure ] The dimension of volume = [L3] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Pressure Energy = The dimension […]

## Dimensional formula of Pressure gradient – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of the Pressure gradient. The formula of the Pressure gradient = pressure/distance The dimensional formula of pressure = [ML–1T–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of pressure ] The dimension of distance = [L] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Pressure gradient = The dimension of […]

## Dimensional formula of Velocity gradient – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of the Velocity gradient. The formula of the Velocity gradient = velocity/distance The dimensional formula of velocity = [M0LT–1] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of velocity ] The dimension of distance = [L] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Velocity gradient = The dimension of […]

## Dimensional formula of Surface energy per unit area – how to find it?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Surface energy per unit area. This term is related to surface tension. This surface energy relates to the surface of a liquid. The formula of Surface energy per unit area = Surface energy /total area The dimensional formula of energy = The dimensional formula of work […]

## Dimensional formula of Surface Tension – how to find it?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Surface Tension. The formula of Surface Tension = force/length The dimensional formula of force = [MLT–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of force ] The dimension of length = [L] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Surface Tension = The dimensional formula of force […]

## Dimensional formula of Modulus of elasticity – how to find it?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of the Modulus of elasticity. This Dimensional formula will be applicable for 3 different sets of elasticity modulus: These are (a) Young’s Modulus (2) Shear Modulus (3) Bulk modulus The Modulus of Elasticity is the ratio of Stress and Strain. The formula of Modulus of Elasticity = […]

## Dimensional formula of Strain

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Strain. This Dimensional formula will be applicable for all the following types of strain, – (1) Longitudinal Strain (2) Shearing Strain, (3) Volume Strain. Find details about strain & stress in this post: stress, strain, elasticity The generic formula of Strain = Change in dimension/original dimension […]

## Dimensional formula of Stress – how to find it?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Stress. This Dimensional formula will be applicable for all the following types of stresses, – (1) Longitudinal stress (Tensile and Compressive stress) (2) Tangential or Shearing Stress, (3) Hydraulic Stress The formula of Stress = force/area The dimensional formula of force = [MLT–2] [see here how […]

## Dimensional formula of Pressure – how to find it?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Pressure. The formula of Pressure = force/area The dimensional formula of force = [MLT–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of force ] The dimension of area = [L2] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Pressure = The dimensional formula of force / The dimensional […]

## Dimensional formula of Momentum – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Momentum. The formula of Momentum = mass x velocity The dimension of mass = [M] The dimensional formula of velocity = [M0LT–1] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of velocity ] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Momentum = The dimension of mass x The […]

## Dimensional formula of Power – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Power. The formula of Power = Work/time The dimensional formula of work = [ML2T–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of work ] The dimension of time = [T] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Power = The dimensional formula of work / The dimension […]

## Dimensional formula of Work – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Work. The formula of Work = force x displacement The dimensional formula of force = [MLT–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of force ] The dimension of displacement = [L] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Work = The dimensional formula of force x […]

## Dimensional formula of Impulse – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Impulse. The formula of Impulse = force x time The dimensional formula of Force = [MLT–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of force ] The dimension of time = [T] Hence, the Dimensional formula of Impulse = The dimensional formula of force x […]

## Dimensional formula of force – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of force. The formula of force = mass x acceleration The dimension of mass = [M] The dimensional formula of acceleration = [M0LT–2] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of acceleration ] Hence, the Dimensional formula of force = The dimension of mass x The […]

## Dimensional formula of acceleration – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of acceleration. Formula of acceleration = velocity/time The dimensional formula of velocity = [M0LT–1] [see here how to find the dimensional formula of velocity ] The dimension of time = [T] Hence, Dimensional formula of acceleration = The dimension of velocity / The dimension of time = […]

## Dimensional formula of velocity – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of velocity. The formula of velocity = displacement/time The dimension of displacement = [L] The dimension of time = [T] Hence, Dimensional formula of velocity = The dimension of displacement / The dimension of time = [L] / [T] = [LT–1] = [M0L1T-1] = [M0LT–1] Dimensional formula […]

## Dimensional formula of Frequency – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of Frequency. The formula of Frequency = 1/time period The dimension of time period = [T] Hence, Dimensional formula of Frequency = 1 / The dimension of time period = 1 /[T] = [T-1] = [M0L0T-1] Dimensional formula of Frequency = [M0L0T-1]

## Dimensional formula of density – how to find?

Here, we will find out the dimensional formula of density. Formula of density = mass/volume The dimension of mass = [M] The dimension of volume = [L3] Hence, Dimensional formula of density = The dimension of mass / The dimension of volume = [M] / [L3] = [ML–3] = [ML–3T0] Dimensional formula of density = […]

## SI Conversion | Conversion of popular units

In this post, we listed data required for the conversion of units of different physical quantities. These may be used while solving numerical problems in Physics (for educational purposes). Kilometer to mile 1 km = 0.621 mi mile to kilometer 1 mi = 1.609 km meter to feet 1 m = 3.281 feet feet to […]

## Dimensions & Dimensional formulas of physical quantities

In this post, we are going to list the formulas, dimensions, and dimensional formulas of important physical quantities in a tabular format. In these formulas, M stands for mass, L stands for length, and T stands for time. Here is the table below. We will add more such dimensional formulas to this list. Dimensional formulas […]

## Converting L atm to Joule | Litre Atm to Joule

Here in this post, we will convert L atm to Joule. L atm is also known as Litre Atmosphere. L atm to Joule L atm is the product of 2 units and these 2 units are Litre (unit of volume) and Atmospheric pressure (or atmosphere which is a unit of pressure). L atm, hence, is […]

## Measuring the resistance of a component – different ways

In this post, we are going to discuss different ways of measuring the resistance of a component. Resistance is defined as R = V/I. This obviously gives ways of measuring resistance, as in the circuits shown below. Each of the first 2 methods listed below uses both an ammeter and a voltmeter. And, the third […]

## How to find resistance using Resistor Colour Codes

Small resistors use coloured or painted bands which represent their resistive value and tolerance. These coloured painted bands produce a system of identification generally known as a Resistors Colour Code. The physical size of the resistor indicates its wattage rating. Resistor Colour Code Table There are two types of resistor colour coding systems, the four-band […]

## Dimensional Analysis & its uses with examples

This topic covers Dimensional Analysis & its uses. The term dimension is used to refer to the physical nature of a quantity and the type of unit used to specify it. Distance has the dimension of length, which is symbolized as [L], while speed has the dimensions of length [L] divided by time [T], or […]

## Measuring frequency & voltage of an Alternating Current (AC) with CRO

An oscilloscope can be used to measure the frequency and voltage of an alternating current. There are two types of oscilloscopes. The traditional cathode-ray oscilloscope (CRO) uses an electron beam. The alternative is a digital oscilloscope, which is likely to be much more compact and which can store data and display the traces later. Practical […]

## Different types of Pressure gauges & how they operate

Pressure gauges measure the pressure exerted by a fluid, in other words by a liquid or a gas. We will cover 3 types of pressure gauges here, and these are known as (a) Bourdon gauge (b) U-tube manometer and (c) Mercury barometer. Let’s see how these pressure gauges operate. Bourdon gauge In a Bourdon gauge […]

## The oscilloscope & its signal attribute, AC and DC graph

An oscilloscope is an instrument used to investigate electrical signals. The screen of the oscilloscope displays a trace of the electrical signal and in almost all cases this is a graph of potential difference versus time.

## Estimation of physical quantities with Significant Figures and Order of Magnitude

Estimation of physical quantities brings in the concepts of Significant Figures and Order of Magnitude. It is always a good idea to be able to estimate the size of a quantity so that when you work out a problem or finish an experiment you have a rough idea of what sort of value to expect. […]

## Random and systematic errors in physical measurements or physics experiments | Precision and accuracy & Uncertainty

Here we will briefly define and explain the common terms related to Random errors and systematic errors in physical measurements (also in Physics experiments). We will talk about terms like Precision and accuracy & Uncertainty. Define Random errors These are errors that are due to the experimenter. The size of these errors depends on how […]

## [pdf notes] Unit Systems in Physics – grade 10 Notes download | class 11 physics notes on Unit System

This Unit Systems in Physics Notes [PDF] is primarily for the grade 10 (10th grade) physics syllabus of different international boards. This also covers the class 10 physics syllabus on Unit Systems for boards like ISC, CBSE, etc. This physics class note covers the theoretical as well as the numerical part of this important chapter. […]

## Determination of Density of a solid and a liquid

Determination of Density of a Solid by Using a Measuring Cylinder Dividing the mass of a solid by its volume gives its density. The mass of a solid can be determined accurately by using a physical balance. The volume of an irregular-shaped solid can be determined by using a measuring jar (cylinder). To measure the […]

## electronvolt – what is electronvolt(eV) and how is eV related to Joule?

The SI unit of energy joule is too large a unit of energy for the microscopic world. A more convenient unit of energy for the microscopic world is the electronvolt, eV. eV by the way is not part of the SI system. What is electronvolt? | Define electronvolt We define the electronvolt as the work […]

## How to convert between degrees and radians -degree and radian conversion formulas

Angular displacement is often expressed in one of three units. The first is the degree, and it is well known that there are 360 degrees in a circle. The second unit is the revolution (rev), one revolution representing one complete turn of 360 degrees. The most important unit from a scientific viewpoint, however, is the […]

## What is the difference between fundamental quantity and derived quantity?

Length, Mass, and Time – Each of these 3 physical quantities doesn’t depend on any other quantity for its measurement. So these 3 are called Fundamental quantities. Other quantities like velocity, acceleration, and force all depend on more than one fundamental quantity for their measurements. These are called Derived Quantities. [ like velocity depends on […]

## Conversions of Volume units – litre to m3 or litre to cm3 | liter to m3 or liter to cm3

Very often while solving numerical problems of physics we need to take the help of Conversions of Volume units – litre to m3 or litre to cm3 or vice versa. (liter and litre are considered the same). As we try to convert from one unit to the other then the conversion factors come as useful […]

## km/h to m/s – unit conversion from kilometer/hour to meter/second

Km/h to m/s or km/hr to m/s conversion: To convert km/hr value to m/s value just multiply the km/hr value with 5/18 and get the value in m/s. As example, 36 km/hr = 36 * (5/18) m/s = 10 m/s. So, for this unit conversion from kilometer/hour to meter/second, you need to remember the conversion […]