# DC Circuits_21

## Factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor – detailed revision notes

In this post, we will discuss different factors that affect the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. The greater the capacitance of a capacitor the greater the charge held by it for the same applied voltage. The factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor are: Plate area Plate spacing (distance between the plates) Dielectric material […]

## Measuring the resistance of a component – different ways

In this post, we are going to discuss different ways of measuring the resistance of a component. Resistance is defined as R = V/I. This obviously gives ways of measuring resistance, as in the circuits shown below. Each of the first 2 methods listed below uses both an ammeter and a voltmeter. And, the third […]

## How to find resistance using Resistor Colour Codes

Small resistors use coloured or painted bands which represent their resistive value and tolerance. These coloured painted bands produce a system of identification generally known as a Resistors Colour Code. The physical size of the resistor indicates its wattage rating. Resistor Colour Code Table There are two types of resistor colour coding systems, the four-band […]

## How does alternating current differ from direct current?

In this post, we will find out the answer to a very common question: “How does alternating current differ from direct current?” Direct current implies that the current flows in a single direction from the positive terminal of a battery or power supply to the negative terminal. This is the normal result when a battery […]

## Ammeters and Voltmeters

Ammeters measure the current of a circuit, and voltmeters measure the voltage drop across a resistor. Ammeters and voltmeters are cleverly designed because it is important in the design to make sure that the use of these meters doesn’t change the circuit in such a way as to influence the readings. While both types of […]

## Capacitors & Capacitance

Capacitors are components of electrical circuits that temporarily store electric charge. Capacitors are simple passive devices. The capacitor is a component that has the ability or “capacity” to store energy in the form of an electrical charge producing a potential difference across its plates. Capacitors consist of two or more parallel conductive metal or foil […]

## [pdf notes] Electric Circuits Grade 10 & Grade 11 Notes download | class 10 & class 11 physics notes on Electric Circuits

This Electric Circuits Notes [PDF download] is primarily for the 10th & 11th grade physics syllabus of different international boards. This also covers the class 10 and class 11 physics syllabus on Electric Circuits for boards like ICSE, CBSE, etc. This physics class note covers the theoretical as well as the numerical part of this […]

## Potential dividers – how does it work? – explain with examples

Sometimes we want to use only part of the e.m.f. of a supply. To do this, we use an arrangement of resistors called a potential divider circuit. In other words, a potential divider is a circuit with an arrangement of resistors that helps us to use only part of the emf of a supply. Potential […]

## What is the Internal Resistance of cells?

What is the Internal Resistance of cells & how it affects the current flow in a circuit? All electric cells are made of materials that have resistance. The resistance of the cell is called the internal resistance. If a cell with internal resistance is connected to a resistor, the current will flow from the cell. […]

## How to define Voltages, Electromotive Force (emf), and Potential Difference (PD)?

Voltages, Electromotive Force (emf), and Potential Difference (PD) – These 3 terms are often used while we discuss electrical circuits. Hence exactly knowledge about these certainly helps us to understand one circuit. Here we will provide a brief definition or meaning of these three terms. What is Voltage? The electrical quantity Voltage is a measure […]

## Symbols & functions of Common components of electrical circuits – How to get?

Figure 1 below presents 17 circuit symbols for a variety of circuit components like cell, battery, switch open, switch closed, ammeter, voltmeter, motor, resistor, thermistor, fuse, diode, LED (Light Emitting Diode), LDR (Light Dependent Resistor), Filament lamp, variable resistor, d.c. supply, & a.c. supply. Symbols & functions of Common components The following tables describe some […]

## Voltages in series circuits and parallel circuits – easy understanding

Voltages in series circuits and parallel circuits – Let’s see how total voltage in series circuits and parallel circuits are calculated. Voltages in series circuits A series circuit has no junction. Now if there is any group of EMFs that follow in series in such junctionless circuit then the total voltage or emf of the […]

## How current flows through series and parallel circuits? A quick reference

Here we will see how current flows through series and parallel circuits. Currents in series circuits In a series circuit, devices are connected so there is only one closed path for current to follow. However, if any part of this path is broken, current will no longer flow in the circuit. Any group of components […]

## Equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit with derivation & numerical problems

The equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit is found using Kirchoff’s junction rule, which states that the sum of the currents entering a branch (or junction) must be equal to the sum of the currents leaving a branch (or junction). This is illustrated in Figure 1 (the black dot represents the branch point). See how […]

## Series Circuits, Resistors in series & equivalent resistance – numerical

What is a series circuit? A series circuit consists of several resistors connected in sequence, one after the other. This increases the length of the conductor. Therefore total resistance increases as the number of resistors in series are increased in the circuit. Characteristics of Series Circuit as found from experiments Experiments show that the current […]

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