In this post, we present the solution to the exercise of class 12th physics chapter 5 of the NCERT Physics book. This chapter covers topics related to Magnetism and Matter. The students of CBSE, ISC and other boards will find the questions and their answers useful. Here you will get solved questions and numerical problems […]

# physics fundamentals

## Ohmic conductor & Non-Ohmic conductor – differences

Differences between Ohmic conductors and non-ohmic conductors with respect to Ohm’s law, V-I graph, resistance constancy or not – are listed in this post. difference between Ohmic & Non-Ohmic conductor Ohmic conductors are conductors that obey Ohm’s Law. The V-I curves of these conductors are linear. Resistance is independent of Voltage and Current for these […]

## RRC and RAR in 8085

In this post, we will see with examples how RRC and RAR instructions in 8085 work and how they differ in their operations. Instruction RRC and RAR are basically two logical instructions available in instruction sets of 8085, to rotate the bits of the accumulator one position to the right. Define RRC and RAR instructions […]

## AND Gate – definition, symbol, & Truth Table

An AND gate is a logic circuit having two or more inputs and one output. The output of an AND gate is HIGH only when all of its inputs are in the HIGH state. In all other cases, the output is LOW. When interpreted for a positive logic system, this means that the output of […]

## Calculating the percentage of an element in a compound

Here, with an example, we will see how to calculate the percentage of an element in a compound. Relative atomic masses can also be used to calculate the percentage of different elements in a compound. For example:carbon dioxide (CO2) contains 12 g of carbon and 2 × 16 g of oxygen in 44 g of […]

## Pauli’s Exclusion Principle & Maximum number of electrons in subshells

As per Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, No two electrons in an atom can have all the four quantum numbers identical or in any orbital maximum number of electrons can be two with opposite spins. [Know about 4 Quantum numbers & number of orbitals in different subshells] The maximum number of electrons in :(i) s subshell can […]

## Mathematical Formulas

In this post, we present images (infographics) that contain a set of Mathematical Formulas. This will be a ready reckoner for educational understanding purposes. Quadratic formula Geometry – (area, volume) Trigonometry Triangle Series expansions Derivatives Integrals Disclaimer: (please let us know if you find any typos or errors. This post and its contents are For […]

## Periodic Table (image)

In this post, we present an image (infographics) that contains the periodic table of the elements. This will be a ready reckoner for those who want a quick view of the periodic table.

## Fundamental Constants (Physics & Chemistry)

In this post, we present an image (infographics) that contains a set of fundamental constants used in Physics and Chemistry with their symbols and values. This will be a ready reckoner for constants and their values. A few such constants available in this infographics are Atomic mass unit, Avogadro’s number, Coulomb constant, Gas constant, Permittivity […]

## Small Angle Approximations (for physics derivations and numerical problems)

For very small angles, you can approximate values for the sine, cosine, or tangent. This is useful when calculating the fringe separations in interference patterns. When θ is measured in radians, a small angle segment approximates to s/r where s is the arc length and r is the radius. In other words, for a small […]

## Applet programming in Java – pdf notes

Learn applet programming in Java, applet construct, format, code sample – all in a pdf tutorial. Good as a Java primer.

## Properties of P-type and N-type material & their differences

let us go through the properties of P-type and N-type semiconductors. Then we will compare P-type and N-type semiconductors, as well. P-type and N-type material In Figure 1, the left side material is a P-type semiconductor having negative acceptor ions and positively charged holes. The right side material is an N-type semiconductor having positive donor […]

## Commonly used semiconductors: Germanium & Silicon

There are many semiconductors available, but very few of them have practical applications in electronics. The two commonly used materials are Germanium (Ge) and Silicon(Si). In Ge and Si, the energy required to break the covalent bond (energy required to release an electron) is very small. For Ge, it is 0.7 eV and for Si, […]

## Thermal Conductivity – Numerical problems

Here, in this post, we will solve a bunch of numerical problems based on Thermal Conductivity. We have related posts on this that you can refer to if you want to revise the theory and formula derivation of thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity – definition, values, significance, formula Thermal conductivity – derivation of formula, dimensional formula […]

## Change of state – some keywords & definitions

In this post, we defined some keywords related to ‘change of state’ or Phase change. These words include terms like critical point, triple point, etc. The three states of matter that you have considered are solid, liquid, and gas. Each of these states of matter can be considered as a phase. A phase change occurs […]

## How to measure Latent Heat? | Measurement of specific latent heat

The two possible methods for measuring latent heats shown below are very similar in principle to the methods for measuring specific heat capacities. [Read about FAQs of Latent Heat] A method for measuring the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water The setup required for a method for measuring the latent heat of vaporization is […]

## Dimensional Formulas & Dimensions – hub

In this post, we will provide you the links to our posts covering dimensional formulas and dimensions. You will find the formula of the physical quantity, and in a step-by-step fashion, we will show you how to derive the dimensional formula of that quantity. Here is the list of related posts for your reading:

## Comparing viscosities of liquids using a viscometer

The viscosities of liquids can be compared by observing their rates of flow through a glass tube. A simple device called a Redwood viscometer can be adapted easily for the laboratory. Comparing viscosities using a viscometer A viscometer is shown in Figure 1. Using the apparatus in Figure 1, fill the funnel with liquid to […]

## Common forces – types, definition & examples

In this post, we will discuss 8 common forces we find in Physics. For every such force type, we will find out the cause or reason or source of the force and also will site a few examples. The common forces we include are (1) weight, (2) Normal contact or normal force, (3) Friction, (4) […]

## Important formulas related to Atomic Structure

In this post, you will find a bunch of important formulas related to atomic structure. formulas related to atomic number & mass number (a) Atomic number (Z) = number of electrons = number of protons (b) Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number + number of neutrons (c) […]

## Converting L atm to Joule | Litre Atm to Joule

Here in this post, we will convert L atm to Joule. L atm is also known as Litre Atmosphere. L atm to Joule L atm is the product of 2 units and these 2 units are Litre (unit of volume) and Atmospheric pressure (or atmosphere which is a unit of pressure). L atm, hence, is […]

## The effect of air resistance on projectile motion

In this post, we will find the effect of air resistance on projectile motion. We have seen that in the absence of air resistance, the trajectory or path followed by a projectile is a parabola and that the path depends only on the initial speed and angle of projection. But in the real world, all […]

## Dimensional Analysis & its uses with examples

This topic covers Dimensional Analysis & its uses. The term dimension is used to refer to the physical nature of a quantity and the type of unit used to specify it. Distance has the dimension of length, which is symbolized as [L], while speed has the dimensions of length [L] divided by time [T], or […]

## 11th Physics – how to study [class 11 physics Guide & Study Materials]

This post is to guide the students who have opted for Physics as a subject for their class 11. We will have a broad view of the topics and chapters to be studied and also refer to the books and online study materials as a quick reckoner for the 11th Physics study, covering the NCERT […]

## What is the difference between fundamental quantity and derived quantity?

Length, Mass, and Time – Each of these 3 physical quantities doesn’t depend on any other quantity for its measurement. So these 3 are called Fundamental quantities. Other quantities like velocity, acceleration, and force all depend on more than one fundamental quantity for their measurements. These are called Derived Quantities. [ like velocity depends on […]