# How to use Latex for Arithmetic operations

In this post, we’ll see how to use Latex to express Arithmetic operations.

A few points to remember:

– Inline formulas open and close with $ or open with **\ (** and close with** \ )**.

– Displayed math environments open with** \ [** and close with** \ ]**.

– A math symbol is invoked by a command. For example, the command for ∞ is \infty and the command for → is \to.

## Latex for Arithmetic operations

We type the arithmetic operations 𝑎 + 𝑏, 𝑎 − 𝑏, −𝑎, 𝑎∕𝑏, and 𝑎𝑏 in the natural way: **$a + b$**, **$a – b$**, **$-a$**, **$a / b$**, and **$a b$** (the spaces are typed only for readability).

*Related study*: **Display Roots with Latex **

### Latex for multiplication operation

If you wish to use ⋅ or × for multiplication, as in 𝑎⋅𝑏 or 𝑎×𝑏, use** \cdot **or** \times, **respectively.

The formulas 𝑎⋅𝑏 and 𝑎×𝑏 are typed as **$a \cdot b$** and **$a \times b$**.

### Latex for division

There is one form for division. 𝑎 ÷ 𝑏 is typed as follows: **$a \div b$**

### Latex to display fraction using frac

Let’s see how to handle Displayed fractions, such as the following:

The fraction given is typed with \frac in the following way:**\ [ \frac{1 + 2x}{x + y + xy}\ ]**

Here, \frac is the command, **1 + 2x** and **x + y + xy** are the arguments.

### Displaying fraction using dfrac & tfrac

You can use display-style fractions inline with \dfrac, and inline-style fractions in displayed math environments with \tfrac; for example, let’s take a fraction (3 + a^{2} ) / (4 + b).

When this fraction needs to be shown with inline-style then it is to be typed as the following:

**$\dfrac{3 + a^{2}}{4 + b}$**

And, when fraction needs to be displayed in math environments then it’s to be typed as:

[**\tfrac{3 + a^{2}}{4 + b}**]

## Subscripts and superscripts

**Subscripts are typed with _ and superscripts with ˆ (caret). **

Subscripts and superscripts should be enclosed in braces, that is, typed between { and }.

To get 𝑎_{1}, type **$a_{1}$**.

Omitting the braces in the above example causes no harm, but to get 𝑎_{10}, you must type **$a_{10}$**. Indeed, $a_10$ is typeset as 𝑎_{1}0.

**Note**: There is one symbol, the prime (’), that is automatically superscripted in a formula.

To get 𝑓′(𝑥), just type **$f’(x)$**.

* One more example set with different types of subscripts and superscripts*:

\ [

a_{1},\ a_{i_{1}},\ a^{2},\ a^{b^{c}},\ a^{i_{1}},\

a_{i} + 1,\ a_{i + 1},\ a_{1}^{2},\ a^{2}_{1}

\ ]

The above set typesets as