To specify the location of a point in space, a coordinate system must be used. A coordinate system consists of a reference point called the origin O and a set of labeled axes. The positive direction of an axis is in the direction of increasing numbers, whereas the negative direction is the opposite.

## different types of Coordinate Systems in 2 dimensions

Figures 1 and 2 show the **rectangular (or Cartesian) coordinate system** and the **polar coordinates** of a point, respectively.

**The rectangular coordinates x and y are related to the polar coordinates r and θ by the following relations:**

**x = r cos θy = r sin θtan θ = y/xr = √(x**

^{2}+ y

^{2})

## different types of Coordinate Systems in 3 dimensions – with diagram

In three dimensions, the cartesian coordinate system is shown in Fig. 3.

Other used coordinate systems in three dimensions are the spherical and cylindrical coordinates (Figs. 4 and 5).